Fluoride annotated bibliography

Dhar, Vineet, and Maheep Bhatnagar. “Physiology and Toxicity of Fluoride.” Indian Journal of Dental Research 20.3 (2009): 350-5. ProQuest. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.

  • This scholarly journal from the Indian Journal of Dental health delineates to various aspects of the element fluorine and how it exists in relation with the environment and its direct effect on the human population. The article opens with a brief discussion on the nature of the fluoride compounds and their various states in nature. Such is followed by a transition to a specific case for the availability of fluoride, India. Variation in fluoride levels are compared as well as the measures taken to ensure that the proper intake is met for a healthy populous. The article continues to outline the various positive and ill effects that fluoride has on humans of varying age demographics; for the ill effects, the article proposes various diagnoses and treatments for dental and skeletal fluorosis. The topic of genetic mutations due to excess fluoride exposure is briefly discussed.

Gutierrez-Salinas, Jose, et al. “Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11.9 (2010): 3610-22. ProQuest. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.

  • This is a research study on the effects of excess fluoride on the liver of rats and the genetic structure in liver cells. It was found that high doses of sodium fluoride (NaF) caused an overall decrease in the rats’ body weights and increase in liver weights. The findings asserted that because the liver is most subject to toxic substances due to its detoxification role as an organ, it most heavily manifests the effects of fluoride excess. The liver was found to be swollen and ultimately possessed a scrambled cellular structure. It was also found that fluoride ions alter the gene expression of certain liver cells in charge of killing bacteria and cell homeostasis. Fluoride ions, in conclusion, encourage apoptosis of the liver cells, alluding to a similar reaction in human cells.

Schultz, Dodi. “Flouride: Cavity-Fighter on Tap.” FDA consumer 01 1992: 34. ProQuest. Web. 25 Jan. 2016 .

  • The article from FDA Consumer employs reference to the historical success of fluoridation as a means of curbing dental carries. It further continues by explaining how fluoride helps protect teeth through molecular interactions. The article then shifts to discuss the ill effects of fluoride excess on teeth and addresses arguments against fluoridation by a case study with rats in which the research mislead the public by suggestion of a weak (in fact nonexistent) link between fluoride and cancer in rats. The article concludes with a guide and tips informing the reader on the situations in which fluoride supplements should be administered and how certain sources of fluoride in water and other common various sources compare.





Lo Giudice, John-Paul. “The Water Fluoridation Debate.” Journal of the Australian – Traditional Medicine Society 20.4 (2014): 274-7. ProQuest. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.

  • This article addresses the various arguments of the debate over the fluoridation of water. The article employs an Australian perspective to the debate. The opening of the analysis compares the cost effectiveness of fluoridating the water to the healthcare costs as a result of dental caries (cavities). The statistic presents the efficacy ratio to be 7:1. The article transitions to various extreme counter arguments and discredits them by alluding to a lack of research in support of and mounted evidence to the contrary of these claims. The article then addresses more valid concerns in the debate against fluoride, finally concluding on a note of indecision, emphasizing the complexity of the issue.


Kurian, Maria, and R. V. Geetha. “Effect of Herbal and Fluoride Toothpaste on Streptococcus Mutans – A Comparative Study.” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 7.10 (2015): 864-5. ProQuest. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.

This is a research study comparing the efficacy of fluoride toothpaste versus herbal toothpaste against Streptococcus Mutans, a common bacteria that causes dental caries (cavities). The study was conducted by observing the inhibitory effect of each toothpaste as applied over a set surface area. It was found that the fluoride toothpaste was more effective at preventing the spread of the bacterial population. The study gives proof for an added benefit of fluoride as an antibacterial agent when administered appropriately.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.