Annotated Bibliography

(Contains indentation and formatting errors due to entry system of posts)

Annotated Bibliography:

Annamalai, H., Keener, V., Widlansky, M. J., & Hafner, J. (2015, December). ScholarSpace at University of Hawaii at Manoa: El Niño Strengthens In The Pacific : Preparing For The Impacts Of Drought. Retrieved January 28, 2016, from

This article uses evidence from past El Niño’s to identify upcoming affects on Pacific Island nations. It identifies consequences of both the wet and dry periods caused by El Niño weather patterns with an emphasis on tying together environmental and sociopolitical impacts. The El Niño’s effects on issues such as food and freshwater supply, storm damage, and human health are outlined in detail. Finally, the article describes methods of minimizing the weather’s impact on human wellbeing.


Lipin, M. (2016). Global Warming, El Nino Combine To Fuel Extreme World Weather. Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc. Retrieved from

In his article, author Micheal Lipin explains how the combination of global warming and the El Nino effect cause extreme weather conditions in various parts of the world. Lipin states that due to the rising temperatures of the atmosphere, evaporation have increased, therefore generating more energy to power severe storms. Additionally, wildlife particularly the Arctic polar bears have taken a toll because of the decrease in habitat space caused by the effects of global warming and El Nino.


Mcphaden, M. J. (2015). Playing Hide And Seek With El Niño. Nature Climate Change Nature Climate Change, 5(9), 791-795. Retrieved January 28, 2016.

This commentary provides details into predicting the formation of El Niño events. The article primarily focuses on describing the natural occurrences that result in the formation of El Niño events, along with identifying early signs that could lead to its prediction. It uses science-based logic to identify the direct impact of warming waters on global and regional rainfall. It also describes the El Niño’s impact on winds. Finally, it emphasizes shortcomings in the ability of scientists to accurately predict when these weather occurrences will take place, especially provided that it failed to take place in 2014, when conditions were more optimal for El Niño formation than in early 2015.


Moon, I., Kim, S., & Wang, C. (2015). El Niño And Intense Tropical Cyclones. Nature, 526(7575). Retrieved from

This is an article consisting of two studies – the first of which is a response to another study by Jin et al, and the second is a response by Moon to his first study. The two studies debate the aspect of El Niño caused ocean heat contents and their ability to influence Pacific cyclone intensity. They have both identified a clear causation of El Niño’s intensifying cyclones, but they debate and edit the physical mechanisms by which they do so.


NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center; NASA Studying 2015 El Nino Event As Never Before. (2015). Defense & Aerospace Week, 404. Retrieved from

This article outlines the broad, far-reaching impacts of the El Nino effect, a warm current that causes the weather patterns around the world to shift. It begins with a focus on NASA’s ability to better study the effects of El Niño, and then continues to discuss some of those effects. The author explains how the fires in Indonesia are connected to water current. It shows how the Earth as a whole is a system and there are many factors involved. The article also describes how the El Nino will affect the ground level ozone layer, which has an immense immediate impact on human health.

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