Author Archives: Christopher Piccirillo

Taste Buds – Taste of Victory (Brian, Christopher, Mustafa)

Bibliography:

“Aroma Compound.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 26 Apr. 2016.

Boundless. “Gustation: Taste Buds and Taste.” Boundless Psychology. Boundless, 13 Apr. 2016. Retrieved 26 Apr. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/sensation-and-perception-5/sensory-processes-38/gustation-taste-buds-and-taste-163-12698/

Inglis-Arkell E. 08-01/12. 10 Foods You Crave – And Why You Crave Them [Internet]. Available from: http://io9.gizmodo.com/5930266/10-foods-you-crave—-and-why-you-crave-them

Linden DJ. 02-04/15. How We Sense the Heat of Chili Peppers and the Cool of Menthol [Excerpt] [Internet]. Available from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-we-sense-the-heat-of-chili-peppers-and-the-cool-of-menthol-excerpt/

“Mirror Molecules.” Mirror Molecules. Web. 26 Apr. 2016. <http://americanhistory.si.edu/molecule/04exp.htm>.

“Molecular Basis for Taste — Tastant Molecules.” Molecular Basis for Taste — Tastant Molecules. Web. 26 Apr. 2016.

Cover Letter for Administrative Internship at UNC Hospitals

Christopher Piccirillo

_____________________________________________________________________________

281 Raleigh Street Chapel Hill, NC 27514

Telephone: (919)-709-2949

Email: christopher.pic77@gmail.com

 

Dear Selection Committee,

I am writing to apply for the administrative internship position offered over the summer at UNC hospitals.  Immediately upon being introduced to this opportunity by my English professor, I knew that I wanted to apply, as it suits my passion for medicine, my teamwork and communication skills, as well as my career goal of working as a doctor overseas.

Currently I am a freshman on the pre-med track at UNC at Chapel Hill pursuing a B.S. in chemistry as well as a B.A. in German.  I am passionate about languages and communication as I feel that effective communication skills can improve any system, especially the fast-paced medical system within hospitals.  This internship would allow me to understand and work in the administrative part of the medical field, gaining a more holistic view of communication in medicine.  This would improve the way I relate to patients in my future medical career.

I am familiar with the demands and responsibilities of an administrative position and I feel that I would be a valuable asset for the administration of any department.  As President of my high school I was often tasked with the responsibility of writing surveys and collecting data about the effectiveness of various administrative efforts.  It was my role to then organize this data into a visual display and present it to the principal team.  As a result, I am proficient in Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint, necessary knowledge in any position, but especially in an administrative position.  This experience and skill set acquired in my role as School President will allow me to effectively convey the results of the study I will conduct during the internship via an end-of-summer presentation to my department.  Data analysis, however, is not the only form of communication my high school experience prepared me for.

As an orator at school functions and member of the school debating team for three years, my verbal communication skills have been well fostered.  Administration consists heavily of communication of expectations and instructions to colleagues, and the more experienced one is in the ability to communicate verbally, the more effective one’s administrative techniques are.  However, while oral communication is crucial in administration, without teamwork even the most effective communication may break down.

While in high school, I participated in a number of activities that challenged me to develop my teamwork skills to a high degree.  During state-wide debate competitions, my team and I were given the topic of the debate an hour before.  In 60 minutes, it was our job to break down the topic into separate, more manageable issues, distribute these among each speaker and then write a draft of our speeches.  Under such stressful conditions, my team was able to reach the position of top eighth in the state.  Three years on the debate team has prepared me well for working in teams and has developed my ability to be personable, cooperative and reason on the spot, even under pressure. Such skills are coveted in an administrative setting as they enhance efficiency and team cohesiveness, despite the often stressful environment so common in hospitals.

While on my High School’s Chemistry Titration Team, I was able to enhance my teamwork skills in a formal lab setting, and was given the opportunity to develop a strong sense of administrative laboratory experience.  In organizing and leading titration team practice, I became familiar with the demands of lab administration: understanding and being aware of everyone in the lab and each of their separate tasks and the proper procedures that they should adhere to.  At times it was challenging, but it allowed me to broaden my teamwork and administrative ability to a real world setting.  This is exactly the reason I am applying for this internship – to enhance my developing skill set in a more practical setting that allows me to benefit a system which enthuses me.

Through this internship I hope to gain valuable insight into the behind the scenes administrative work necessary to support any medical system.  After medical school, I am planning on practicing medicine overseas, where availability of medical supplies and personnel are sparse and I expect that the administrative experience gained from this internship would equip me well for such a task.

I thank you for your consideration.

Sincerely,

Christopher Piccirillo

Undergraduate at UNC-CH School of Arts and Sciences

Connor #413

Chapel Hill, NC 27514

 

 

Profile and Evaluation of the Administrative Internship at UNC Hospitals

In order to familiarize students with medical practices and expose them to the atmosphere of modern health care, UNC Health Care offers the opportunity to work as an Administrative Intern at UNC Hospitals in the summer.

The internship lasts the entirety of the summer (12 weeks), starting in late May or early June and ending in late August.  It is considered to be fulltime employment with regular working hours, which I assume would be from 9-5pm five days a week (40 hour work week).

As interns, students will get the opportunity to experience the day-to-day of hospital life, learning job skills as well as the nuances of hospital work.  Interns will work in departments within the UNC hospitals in which they have a specific career interest, performing analytical work and observing clinical procedures for data collection and analysis.  As part of the program, interns will meet with mentors and their fellow interns every week to learn from each other, discussing responses to certain medical scenarios.  Cumulative experiences and data collection in an intern’s specific department will result in an end-of-summer presentation.  This presentation is aimed to report trends observed in health care that can lead to future improvement or development of new research.

To be eligible to apply for the Administrative Internship, students must be currently pursuing or have recently finished a degree in undergraduate or graduate studies, and have completed a minimum of one semester of classes of either of these programs.  Interns are also expected to be of good academic standing, therefore applicants are required to have a cumulative 3.0 GPA or greater.  Being legally eligible for work in the US is a requirement as well, as the internship is considered to be a full-time job.  The application for the internship requires a cover letter, resume and a specific cover sheet available on the application website.

As a pre-med student at Chapel Hill considering the field of emergency medicine, this internship program would be incredibly beneficial to my future career, as it would provide the opportunity for me to gain experiential learning in a hospital setting.  In addition to my enjoying observing the behind-the-scenes of medicine, such an opportunity is invaluable on medical school applications.  The fact that this internship is at UNC Hospitals is also a bonus, as this hospital system is ahead of the game in medical research and patient care and is one of the strongest teaching hospitals in the nation.

As for drawbacks of attending the program, there are few and only consist of financial and logistical issues.  While the internship is paid as if it were a full-time job, room and board, transportation and food is not covered, and so enrolling in the program may not be a financially sound investment.  However, despite these potential minor financial drawbacks, I believe this internship to be a good investment of my time and will by no means pass it over.

 

What to expect when it’s unexpected

PTB (10 days)

What survival looks like 10 days after a preterm birth. Photo taken by Andrew and Marnie Hodges on November 20, 2008.

Christopher Piccirillo

As a mother would know, giving birth is an extremely painful ordeal, but once her child has entered the world, and the mother holds him or her for the first time, all of the suffering and anguish seems to dissipate.  Unfortunately, this is not the case for all births.  Every year, more than 500,000 babies (roughly 1 in 8) are born prematurely in the US alone, and the complications that arise from these cases can result in sustained suffering for both the child and mother.

Preterm birth (PTB) is considered to be any birth occurring before 37 weeks of gestation; the time an infant develops in the womb is normally 40 weeks gestation.  PTB not only threatens an infant’s probability of survival, but is detrimental to his or her quality of life.  Many premature babies suffer from mental retardation and physical disabilities such as cerebral palsy.  In the occurrence of a PTB, doctors can only respond to the aftermath.  In high risk patients, however, preventative methods are more effective, as they address the root of the problem before it occurs.  The rationale behind PTB prevention is like spilt milk.  If you remember to put away the carton, the milk will not spill.

As obstetricians Flood and Malone discuss in their seminar, prevention of PTB can be organized into two major categories: primary and secondary prevention.  Primary prevention consists mainly of lifestyle habits that may reduce your risk of having a PTB, such as a balanced diet, while secondary prevention focuses on prolonging pregnancy in women who are at a higher risk of having a PTB.  Higher risk women include those who have had a PTB previously or are pregnant with multiples (i.e. more than one baby at once).  These patients are the focus of secondary prevention, patients like Nikki Fleming.

While working with one of her clients, social worker Nikki Fleming was overcome with what she can only describe as a “horrible pain.”  Moments later, she noticed a discharge of fluid.  She was confused and scared; it was January and her due date was in May.  It was at the hospital that every mother’s worst nightmare became a reality for Nikki: she was in labor and already 2 centimeters dilated.

In 2004, Nikki Fleming gave birth to her first child, Lauren, 3.5 months early.  Immediately, the newborn was rushed to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) where doctors worked quickly to assist her underdeveloped lungs, hooking her up to ventilators.  It was probably in this setting, among the hubbub of emergency medicine, that Nikki first laid eyes on her baby, partially obscured by the myriad of tubes sustaining her fragile life.

Lauren remained in the NICU for 5 months.  This is almost the same amount of time she spent in her mother’s womb.  Today, she still suffers from asthma and has a learning impairment, problems common among those born prematurely.

Due to her history of PTB, Nikki now had a 25% higher chance of having a successive PTB.  So, when she realized that she was pregnant again in 2011, she became a high risk patient, eligible for secondary prevention techniques. Cervical cerclage is one such technique that has been around for decades.

This physically intuitive surgery involves the stitching of the cervix shut to prevent PTB.  The cervix is the passageway between the base of the uterus and the vagina through which an infant travels during birth.  It is made of cartilage and normally is closed during pregnancy to prevent the baby from emerging from the uterus underdeveloped.  However, in a PTB, the cervix is weak or abnormally short and does not function properly.  Thus, stitching the cervix closed has become a widely accepted method of secondary prevention since the 1950s.

This procedure however, is still not well understood.  Research demonstrates that the surgery is effective in high risk patients carrying a single child, but may encourage PTBs in patients carrying multiples.  As with all secondary prevention methods, cervical cerclage is known to work in some instances but not in others.

A less invasive method is the injection of progesterone, a hormone that is produced naturally in the body and stimulates the strengthening of the fetal membrane.  Unsurprisingly, the presence of progesterone decreases when women go into labor.  As a result, researchers developed a synthetic version of the hormone that would strengthen the fetal membrane of women at high risk of a PTB.  Such a treatment was prescribed to Nikki Fleming during her next pregnancy.

A synthetic progesterone-based hormone, 17P, had just been approved by the FDA that year when Nikki began her weekly injections and, though painful, proved to be successful, allowing her daughter, Erin, to be born one week shy of her due date.  Unfortunately, this new method is estimated to prevent only 10,000 PTBs annually, which is just 2% of PTBs in the US.  This is due to the fact that only certain types of high risk women are eligible for the treatment (e.g. woman pregnant with multiples are not eligible).  This is where doctors get creative.

Medicine, like many professions, is heavily dependent upon trial and error and trying to fit the right pieces together to complete the puzzle and solve the problem.  Such problem-solving requires “out of the box” thinking.  This was beautifully demonstrated by the research team who identified a new and more effective method of secondary prevention: a combination of both 17P injections and cervical cerclage.

Recent findings presented at the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ (ACOG) Annual Clinical Meeting of 2013 showed this coupling of treatments to be a more effective method of preventing PTBs in extremely high risk patients.  This discovery highlights the importance of innovative thinking in medical research.  Such creativity will result in many more infants, like Erin, who will be given the opportunity to enter the world whole, but not all research generates an effective PTB prevention technique.

Some experimental drugs are never approved by the FDA as insufficient evidence supports their effectiveness and, in the case of relaxin (a protein-based hormone), some evidence exists to the contrary.  Remember how medical research consists of trial and error?

Well, relaxin happens to be that error.  This naturally occurring hormone regulates internal bodily functions during pregnancy and according to its designer, Dennis Stewart, relaxin strengthens the cervical membrane in women.  However, a review of all relaxin experiments published by The Cochrane Library reveals that relaxin also has the potential to induce birth in some cases.  Due to these mixed findings, none of the proposed benefits can be proven.  Although not all research yields promising results, any attempt to provide these infants with a healthy start to life is worthwhile.

As a result of secondary prevention, Nikki has now successfully given birth to another child, her son Corbin, at 39 weeks.  After the deep, heartfelt anguish that she and her husband experienced when their first child was born, this new research into synthetic progesterone injection prevented such complications from reoccurring.  In this instance, the medical community successfully cared for the Flemings by identifying their need and developing a solution through whatever creative means necessary.

Nikki and her husband Densel have been chosen to be the 2011 ambassadors for March of Dimes, an organization devoted to the health of mothers and their babies.  As ambassadors, the Flemings travel around the nation, telling their story and raising awareness for PTB and the possible methods of treatment.  “We just hope through our travels that it gives people hope,” said Nikki, “We cry with families, we share with families [and] we talk about our experiences together,” and sometimes it is this small “injection” of hope that really is the best medicine.

References

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2013). 17P Plus Cerclage Decreases Preterm Labor Risk. Retrieved from http://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News-Room/News-Releases/2013/17P-Plus-Cerclage-Decreases-Preterm-Labor-Risk

Bain E, Heatley E, Crowther CA, Hsu K, Wiley. 2013. Relaxin for preventing preterm birth (Review) The Cochrane Collaboration [Internet]. The Cochrane Collaboration [Internet]:1–12. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD010073.pub2/pdf

Flood K, Malone FD, Elsevier. 2011. Prevention of preterm birth Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine [Internet]. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine [Internet] Volume 17:59–61. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1744165X11000898

Stewart DR. 2011. Method of preventing premature delivery United States Patent Application Publication [Internet]. United States Patent Application Publication [Internet] 17:1–7, 12. Available from: https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/US20110166070.pdf

TIME Magazine. (2011). Prolonging Pregnancy: New Drug Helps Prevent Premature Birth. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2011/02/08/prolonging-pregnancy-new-drug-helps-prevent-premature-birth/

U.S. News & World Report. 14-11/14. What You Can Do to Prevent Premature Birth [Internet]. Available from: http://health.usnews.com/health-news/patient-advice/articles/2014/11/14/what-you-can-do-to-prevent-premature-birth

WSOC-TV. 08-04/11. Family Focus: Family Raises Awareness About Premature Birth [Internet]. Available from: http://m.wsoctv.com/news/news/family-focus-family-raises-awareness-about-prematu/nGyzT/

What to Expect When It’s Unexpected

 

Christopher Piccirillo                                                                                    February 2, 2016
281 Raleigh Street
Chapel Hill, NC 27514

Journal of the American Medical Association
Sarah Boyd
330 N Wabash
Chicago, IL 60611

Dear Ms. Boyd,

I am currently studying chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and am considering pursuing a career in emergency medicine.  This has prompted my research of emergency medical treatment as well as its prevention.  Particularly, my focus is preterm birth prevention in high risk patients.  This research article, “What to Expect When It’s Unexpected,” will provide your publication with universally relevant medical research that will increase awareness of preventative methods among medical professionals and expectant mothers.

As a mother would know, giving birth is an extremely painful ordeal, but once her child has entered the world, and the mother holds him or her for the first time, all of the suffering and anguish seems to dissipate.  Unfortunately, this is not the case for all births.  Every year, more than 500,000 babies are born prematurely in the US alone, and the complications that arise from these cases can result in sustained suffering for both the child and mother.

Preterm birth (PTB) is considered to be any birth occurring before 37 weeks of gestation (time infant develops in the womb).  PTB not only threatens an infant’s probability of survival, but is detrimental to his or her quality of life.  Many premature babies suffer from mental retardation and physical disabilities such as cerebral palsy.  In the occurrence of a PTB, doctors can only respond to the aftermath.  In high risk patients, however, preventative methods are more effective, as they address the root of the problem before it occurs.  The rationale behind PTB prevention is like spilt milk.  If you remember to put away the carton, the milk will not spill.

Prevention of PTB can be organized into two major categories: primary and secondary prevention.  Primary prevention consists mainly of lifestyle habits that may reduce the risk of having a PTB, such as a balanced diet, while secondary prevention focuses on prolonging pregnancy in women who are at a higher risk of having a PTB.  High risk women include those who have had a PTB previously or are pregnant with multiples (i.e. more than one baby at once).  These patients are the focus of secondary prevention, patients like Nikki Fleming.

For the remainder of the article, Nikki’s story serves as a framework for conveying the methods of secondary prevention that are available.  In 2011, Nikki was prescribed 17P (a progesterone-based hormone) injections, a new method of secondary prevention recently approved by the FDA.  The weekly injections, though painful, prevented her from giving birth to her next two children prematurely.  Parts of her story appear intermittently throughout the article, serving as a means for discussing various research and methods of PTB prevention.  This includes the discussion of the synthetic drug relaxin, which was never approved due to the lack of evidence supporting its effectiveness.  For the majority of the article, successful research in this area is discussed, ranging from surgical procedures to progesterone injections.  In addition, the value of collaborative innovation in the medical field is demonstrated through the combination of separate treatments that resulted in a new and more effective PTB prevention method.

The article concludes by reflecting on the quality of life of Nikki’s children, a direct result of secondary prevention, thus providing a hope for readers who may be confronted with a similar situation.

I thank you for your consideration of this article as a piece in your upcoming publication.

Sincerely,

Christopher Piccirillo

 

Annotated Bibliography (CSE format)

Flood K, Malone FD, Elsevier. 2011. Prevention of preterm birth Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine [Internet]. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine [Internet] Volume 17:59–61. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1744165X11000898

Dr. Karen Flood and Dr. Fergal D Malone are both very accomplished physicians and specialists in the field of obstetrics and gynecology.  Malone is an associate professor on this subject at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons and Flood is currently the head doctor for the early pregnancy service and recurrent pregnancy loss clinic.

In their journal article, Flood and Malone provide a detailed summary and analysis of preterm birth (PTB) prevention.  Flood and Malone launch into a brief overview of primary prevention which includes the many lifestyle habits that increase a patient’s risk of PTB, however, the main focus of this article is methods of secondary prevention.  Secondary prevention (cervical cerclage, progesterone injections, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory administration, and omega-3 intake) is aimed at preventing recurrent PTBs in women who have already experienced one, as previous PTBs increase the risk of future PTBs.  The article analyzes each method, providing a historical background and the potential for research and improvement for each.

Flood and Malone have provided a useful resource for my research of the prevention of PTB in high risk patients, as this is the article’s main focus.  The scope of the article is also refreshingly broad, ranging from cervical cerclage (stitching the cervix closed) that was first developed in the 1950s, to the administration of antibiotics that still requires more research.  In this way, the article provides a sound, holistic analysis of these methods, enabling my research to display both a historical depth as well as the potential for innovation in the area.

 

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2013). 17P Plus Cerclage Decreases Preterm Labor Risk. Retrieved from http://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News-Room/News-Releases/2013/17P-Plus-Cerclage-Decreases-Preterm-Labor-Risk

Published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), this article reports recent findings presented at the ACOG’s Annual Clinical Meeting of 2013 that prove the effectiveness of coupling cervical cerclage (stitching the cervix closed) with injections of 17P (a progesterone-based hormone) in preventing PTB.  It was Dr. Temming’s research that produced these positive results and the article discusses how her results were different than those of other studies, probably due to the fact that a majority of her participants were at a higher risk of PTB.

This article highlights the need for physicians and researchers to “think outside the box” and try combinations of methods.  While my research is mainly focused on relaying information about PTB prevention to those at high risk, a secondary goal is to emphasize the importance of versatile thinking in the medical field and demonstrate to my audience that although medical breakthroughs are much like puzzles; we probably already have the pieces, but we need to research to figure out how they fit together.  The fact that Dr. Temming’s research shows that such a method is most effective in high risk patients makes this article specific to my area of research as well.

 

TIME Magazine. (2011). Prolonging Pregnancy: New Drug Helps Prevent Premature Birth. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2011/02/08/prolonging-pregnancy-new-drug-helps-prevent-premature-birth/

Bonnie Rochman is a freelance journalist who specializes in writing about pregnancy, fertility and parenting.  She frequently writes articles for TIME magazine.

Rochman’s article in TIME was written in response to the FDA approval of Makena, another name for 17P (a progesterone-based hormone) that helps prevent PTB.  To usher in the good news, Rochman uses the story of a mother who is at high risk of PTB after her first child was born prematurely.  However, as a result of 17P injections, her next two children are born at 39 weeks (PTB is before 37 weeks).  The article briefly discusses the biological implications of progesterone injections, revealing that progesterone is responsible for the strengthening of fetal membranes.  However, this also leads to restrictions in who qualifies for this treatment, because, as Rochman points out, women who have multiples (e.g. twins), or do not have issues with their fetal membranes breaking too soon, are not eligible for the treatment.  Rochman’s article is hopeful about this new treatment, but overtly states that new methods are still needed and that the issue of PTBs is nowhere near solved (only 2% of PTBs are estimated to be prevented by 17P).

This article is essential to my research, as it details the method of 17P administration and its effects in high risk pregnancies.  This article in combination with the article 17P Plus Cerclage Decreases Preterm Labor Risk better equips my research to reflect the evolution of medicine in this area.  Rochman’s hopeful anecdote/case study is also a useful framework for conveying the message of my research.

 

Stewart DR. 2011. Method of preventing premature delivery United States Patent Application Publication [Internet]. United States Patent Application Publication [Internet] 17:1–7, 12. Available from: https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/US20110166070.pdf

Dennis R Stewart is an inventor researching the use of synthetic hormones in PTB prevention.

In the background section of his paper, Stewart outlines the leading causes of PTB, such as previous PTBs, preterm labor or miscarriages, a multiple pregnancy (e.g. twins) and being younger than 18 or older than 35 years of age.  He also details the various disabilities and complications that are either fatal to the premature infant, or leave them seriously disabled as a result of PTBs (e.g. mental retardation, cerebral palsy).  In an attempt to patent the use of a protein-based hormone known as relaxin, Stewart explains how relaxin strengthens the cervix, and how a woman with a strong cervix will not be able to give birth, despite any uterine contractions she may be experiencing.  Stewart also presents his surprising finding that such a hormone can prevent PTBs in humans, while inducing birth in animals.  After giving a background and explanation of PTB and relaxin, Stewart outlines his experimental procedure and presents his results, which appear positive.

This paper is an excellent resource for my research, but only in its capacity to explain the various causes and consequences of PTB, thus providing my readers with a background knowledge of the topic.  The actual results of the experiment with relaxin have been disputed by other sources.  The author, Stewart, is also the inventor of the synthetic relaxin drug, and such bias does not permit this paper to be a credible source as far as relaxin administration is concerned.

 

Bain E, Heatley E, Crowther CA, Hsu K, Wiley. 2013. Relaxin for preventing preterm birth (Review) The Cochrane Collaboration [Internet]. The Cochrane Collaboration [Internet]:1–12. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD010073.pub2/pdf

This review is one of many produced by the Cochrane Library for the sole purpose of providing the public with an informed view of the various medical methods of treatment available, as well as their effectiveness.  The Cochrane Library’s reviews are internationally acclaimed as far as evidence-based health care is concerned.

This review provides a brief overview of the history of relaxin research and the many conflicting conclusions researchers have come to over the years.  Some research seems to show that relaxin helps to prevent PTB, while other research refutes this claim.  This paper seeks to holistically analyze the cumulative results of past research by evaluating it for bias.  The methods used for each experimental trial are detailed, and the conclusion reached by the reviewers is that the majority of the trials contained instances of severe bias.  The review contends that currently, there is not enough experimental evidence to either for or against the use of relaxin in the prevention of PTB.

Such a critical paper broadens the scope of my research, allowing me to conclude that Stewart’s patent application, Method of preventing premature delivery, is not entirely credible in its assessment of the effects of relaxin for PTB prevention.  I can thus give my readership a snapshot of the medical history of PTB prevention in its ups and downs.

History of Autism Summary

The article contends that autism is probably not a recent development among our society, but its characteristics can be traced back to the 1800s during the time that Howe was implementing schools for the physically and mentally disabled.  He received a grant that allowed him to assemble information about these people who acted socially abnormally.  The author of the paper shows us that these documented characteristics are very similar to those found in autistic people today.  The article concludes with the idea that answers and information about autism could possibly be found in the past.