Author Archives: Addie Frank

Ethics Lab: Physician-Assisted Suicide

By: Addie Frank and Kailyn Valido


CBSThisMorning. “Brittany’s Choice: 29-year-old Reignites Debate about Aid in Dying.” YouTube. YouTube, 2014. Web.

CompassionChoices. “A New Video for My Friends.” YouTube. YouTube, 2014. Web.<>.

Death with Dignity. Death with Dignity National Center.            <>.

DoctorDeath. “The Legacy of ‘Dr. Death’ Dr. Jack Kevorkian (Soon to Be Dr. Life).” YouTube. YouTube, 2011. Web.

Fass, Andrea. “Physician-assisted Suicide.” Medscape. American Journal of Health System Pharmacy, 2011. Web.

Ferreira, Phillip. “Should Terminally Ill Patients Have the Right to Doctor-assisted Suicide?” Debate Poll. DDO Company. Web.

“History of Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide.” ProCon: Explore Pros and Cons of Controversial Issues. 2015. Web.

Pickert, Kate. “A Brief History of Assisted Suicide.” TIME. 3 Mar. 2009. Web.

Thomas, Dylan. “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night.” Poets. Academy of American Poets, 1937. Web

Cover Letter for Emory Healthcare Internship Program

Addison Frank


Mr K–
Emory Healthcare

Dear Mr. K–:

My name is Addison Frank. I am a first year student at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. I would like to apply for the Emory Healthcare Hospital Summer Internship Program for the summer of 2016. I am a pre-medical student majoring in Psychology and Anthropology with a minor in Chemistry. With my background and healthcare interests, I believe I would be a strong candidate for this program.

Ever since I can remember, I have wanted to work in the medical field, specifically as a physician. I have gone through several internships and volunteer opportunities that have helped shape this desire. I began by volunteering with the VolunTeen program at Children’s Hospital of Atlanta at Scottish Rite and working in the Emergency Department and the pharmacy in 2013. From there, I applied for the Future Healthcare Professionals Program at Children’s Hospital of Atlanta for the 2013-2014 school year and was accepted. Through this program, I was exposed to many different careers in the healthcare field ranging from prosthetics to emergency medicine.

This opportunity opened my eyes to possible career paths for me that led to finding several internships. I interned with Dr. Bahig Shehata, a pediatric pathologist at Children’s Hospital of Atlanta at Egleston and a professor at Emory University School of Medicine beginning in the summer of 2013. Through working with him, I was able to work in a lab setting and do research on pediatric cancers. I was also able to shadow a Dr. Bess Schoen, a pediatric gastroenterologist, and sit in on a surgery performing a small/large bowel resection. I have continued to intern with him every summer. I also interned with Dr. Laura Bleekrode at Alpharetta Pediatrics for two weeks in a summer internship program with my high school. Interning with her allowed me to observe the day-to-day life working in a pediatrician’s office. This internship made me realize that I wanted a hospital environment for my future career rather than a pediatric office.

Now as an undergraduate student, I am a part of Operation Smile, a club motivated towards raising money for clef palate and cleft lip surgeries in third world countries, and Global Medical Training, a club motivated towards educating students on medical careers through mission work. My spring break of 2016 I am going on a GMT mission trip to Granada, Nicaragua to work in clinics diagnosing people. My specific interest for healthcare now is towards pediatrics in a hospital setting, particularly OBGYN. I will be volunteering in a gynecologist office this summer at Northside Hospital.

For this specific position, I feel that I would be able to flourish as a pre-medical student. The project-based work that is part of this internship would teach me a lot about leadership, hospital operations at Emory, and grow my interest in health care. Because this internship is project-based, my background as head editor of my high school yearbook will help me handle the work and excel in working on projects. Through being an editor, I learned skills about organization, leadership, deadlines, delegating responsibilities, and creativity.

I hope you will consider me as an intern for this healthcare internship program because I feel that I, as an applicant, have a lot to offer to this this internship, and this program would offer a lot to me in terms of furthering my path towards being in the medical field.


Addison Frank
Psychology B.S.|Anthropology B.A.|Chemistry Minor


  1. Frank Resume
  2. Frank Transcript

Emory Healthcare Hospital Summer Internship Program

The internship that I am looking to apply to is the Emory Healthcare Hospital Summer Internship Program. This is a formalized program that has exact guidelines and protocol for how the program is completed. The time commitment for this program is 10-12 weeks in the summer that would begin in early June and continues through mid-August. I would be working full-time during the week through the whole summer.

The main goal of the internship is working on project-based work throughout out the summer that will be formally presented at the end of the summer to the hospitals’ executive leadership team. Other work activities include attending senior leadership meetings and “lunch and learns” with current administrative fellows in order to gain more knowledge and experience about the hospital interactions and systems. Through this internship, I would gain exposure to hospital operations and leadership through the project-based work, and I would also be exposed to the other hospitals within the Atlanta hospital system.

This program has many strengths due to its high credibility at a premier hospital in Atlanta. The resources available to me as an intern would be incredibly invaluable to me as a pre-medical student. I would gain a lot of experience within a hospital setting, and the learning experience would be incredible to put on my resume. The weaknesses to choosing this internship would be the level of competitiveness for being accepted into the internship program. Plus, the hours/time commitment is extensive for the summer internship.

As part of being in the summer internship program, I would be paid. The exact pay per hour would be determined at the beginning of the summer by the Program Manager and Executive Leader. The pay is mainly based on level of education, undergraduate or graduate. The current rate for undergraduates is $10 per hour ($15 per hour for graduate). Housing is not offered as part of this compensation for the internship. However, because I live in Atlanta, this will not be an issue, and I will commute from home every day for the internship.

As for the actual application and requirements, minimal exist actually. The application itself is submitting your current resume in PDF format, a cover letter addressing my interest in healthcare in PDF format, and my undergraduate transcript (can be unofficial) to the Program Manager, Ameenay Khan, through email as listed on the website by February 12th, 2016. I hope to apply for this internship either the summer of 2017 or 2018 because I have already passed the due date for this summer. If I make it to the second round of the application process, then I will go through a phone interview, and I would be notified of my status by April 1st, 2016 (if I could have applied this year). There are no specific academic requirements; however, the website states that the program is “aimed at highly motivated individuals who are currently enrolled in an undergraduate or graduate level program and are interested in pursuing a career in health care”.

I would love to hopefully one summer actually do this internship. My plan is to apply next summer in 2017, and if I don’t get in, then I will reapply for the following summer in 2018.

Weed is What You Need

Addie Frank


Indeed, you should read about how weed is a need to help those succeed to impede…pain, nausea, and muscle rigidity. Most people probably wouldn’t have guessed those three words to be the end of that rhyme so what do those three side effects have to do with weed, otherwise known as marijuana? Two words: medical cannabis.

While recreational marijuana is only legal in four states (Colorado being the most well-known), medicinal marijuana is actually legal in nineteen states. That is almost half of the U.S.! Although the law in these nineteen states allows the use and consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the controversy over its actual benefits continues to push forward.

According to W.J. Maule, the issue with the use and consumption of medical marijuana is more about how it can harm the body through using it over a long period of time rather than about the help it can and does bring. Focusing on the harm it can produce overshadows the benefits, causing a loop of legality to occur in the political world.

With medical marijuana being illegal in most of the United States and used minimally in the states in which it is legal, case studies and research about its benefits are inhibited. However, on the other side, because there are not many case studies or much research out there showing how beneficial medical marijuana can be; changing political policy about medical marijuana cannot happen without the proof from such research. It is a never ending cycle unless political policy changes to allow more research or for studies to happen regardless of the law.

Medical marijuana grunge rubber stamp, vector illustration

The fight for the right to legally use medical marijuana has been going on since the 1970s. A man named Robert Randall was the first person to succeed in a legal case regarding the right to use cannabis as medication. Marijuana had been dubbed a Schedule 1 drug under the Controlled Substances Act in 1970. This drug classification meant that any drugs under this title was deemed to have “no accepted medical use in treatment in the United States” as stated according to Kevin B. Zeese. This classification still applies to this day.

Many organizations supporting the use of marijuana in a medical setting or even recreationally have fought against this classification and laws restricting the use of marijuana because with its restriction, research on this drug cannot be furthered.

However, thirty-three states in the United States in the years 1978-1982 did pass laws to allow marijuana to be used by seriously ill patients. Once this was done, the states had to pass the requirements of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), the DEA (US Drug Enforcement Administration), and the National Institute on Drug Abuse in order to actually have marijuana in the hands of the state. By 1984, seventeen states had done this and had active Compassionate Investigational New Drug (IND) programs. With this, states could move forward in investigations and research of marijuana.

THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is the main psychoactive chemical in Cannabis sativa that is the “high” people are searching for when they smoke, eat, etc. this plant. THC is most effective in the body when smoked, and as said by Maule, it can be detected in the body immediately after smoking and at its highest peak in the body within 10 minutes.

How THC and other cannabinoids (other chemicals in cannabis) work in the body is that they bind to receptors in the central nervous system. The body actually produces naturally cannabinoids, but at low levels. The receptors for them are found in the parts of the brain where movement, stress response, advanced thinking, and memory are controlled. Pain perception and nausea/vomiting are also controlled by cannabinoid receptors in the body. By putting cannabis in the body (through any venue), the natural level of cannabinoids in the body rises drastically so receptors are loaded up, and the actions controlled by these receptors are affected.

When THC or other cannabinoids bind to these receptors, pain can be reduced, muscle spasms can be diminished, and other symptoms of varying illnesses can be alleviated. Illnesses or diseases such as Parkinson’s, HIV, or psychosis, and even the side effects that come with chemotherapy can all be helped through medical marijuana.

Cannabis as a legitimate medical treatment option for Parkinson’s disease, a progressive nerve degeneration disorder, was examined in a case study done by professionals from Rabin Medical Center and Tel Aviv University. Twenty-two patients with this disease were monitored after using/smoking cannabis to see if their symptoms were improved such as pain, motor symptoms, and muscle rigidity. The case proved that all three of these symptoms along with sleep were improved after smoking cannabis.

This case study is important for its findings, but must be looked at from afar due to some important restrictions it presented. A small group of subjects leads to variability in how useful marijuana actually can be in real life for symptoms related to Parkinson’s disease. Further, many of the symptoms measured in this study were patient identified symptoms. Patients reported their pain levels using the Unified Parking Disease Rating Scale so the results could be skewed based on what each patient feels is a lot of pain or a little bit of pain.


Another case study conducted in California by the State of California Medical Marijuana Research Act showed positive findings for medical marijuana. Two trials were conducted with patients who had HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and neuropathic pain. They were given cannabis cigarettes with varying amounts of THC in them including ones that were placebos with no THC at all in them. The results showed reduction in pain (30% reduction in pain intensity). Interestingly enough, the medium-dose cannabis cigarettes had the same effect as the high-dose ones in reduction of pain.

On the opposite end, a specific case study on one patient presented a completely different picture of medical marijuana. This young man, named “Mr. Z”, had been in military service and was self-diagnosing marijuana for medical reasons. However, because he suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, the marijuana only heightened the symptoms of this condition. He suffered from hallucinations (hearing voices) and delusions (believing he was Jesus Christ). The marijuana had been used to relieve the pain he felt, but it caused psychosis to occur for “Mr. Z”.

The issue with using this case study as effective proof against medical marijuana is that other problems were present in the subject which caused the marijuana to produce adverse effects. So this case study lacks reliability for whether or not medical marijuana is bad to use.

So given all this information, should marijuana be legal for medical reasons or would it only encourage marijuana use for all? That’s up for debate, but weed may just be what is needed for pain reduction in chronic diseases and illnesses.

Medical Marijuana Query Letter

Addie Frank
Horton 241
411 Skipper Bowles Drive
Chapel Hill, NC 27514

Dear Ms. Sarah Boyd,

My name is Addie Frank, and I am a student at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. I am looking for a magazine or journal to publish my newest article, “Weed is What You Need”. I believe this article would fit in well with the style of your journal.

As you may have seen in recent years, the legalization of recreational marijuana has been very popular in the news. The curiosity about marijuana has brought more scrutiny to this topic. Currently, only four states have legalized it recreationally in the United States despite its controversial use and “benefits”. One of those “benefits” is medical. I say “benefits” because research and case studies still have yet to fully confirm 100% that medical marijuana is a real thing.


Did you know that medicinal marijuana is actually legal in 19 states? Although almost half of the United States legally allows the use and consumption of marijuana, the controversy over its actual benefits continues to push forward. “Weed is What You Need” is an article that discusses this issue and how the medical front is pushing towards greater legalization of medical marijuana and proving its benefits in cases like Parkinson’s disease or psychosis. With this article, questions as to how marijuana went from being illegal everywhere to slowly becoming legalized across the nation medically, and recreationally from Colorado to Hawaii will be answered. I want to show how this issue is stuck in a loop in the legality of the drug rather than the issue being focused on the benefits it can bring.

This article will start off with interesting facts about medical marijuana and what it actually does to the body when smoked- this will draw the reader in. By starting off with this, the reader will understand better the physical implications of marijuana. Then I will move into my overarching angle: the loop of legality of medical marijuana. Because medical marijuana is illegal in most of the United States still and used minimally in the places it is legal, case studies and research about its benefits are inhibited. However, on the other side, because there are not many case studies and research out there showing how beneficial medical marijuana can be; changing political policy about medical marijuana cannot happen without the proof from such research. It is a never ending cycle unless political policy changes to allow more research or for studies to happen regardless of the law.

After the discussion of the history of the policy and this loop, I will move into two positive case studies and one negative case study about medical marijuana. A study on motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease will be discussed and how it shows benefits of medical marijuana. Another study about repressed nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy will be discussed and how the chemicals in marijuana can be effective if not more effective than traditional medications for this symptom of cancer treatment. On the flip side, a case about medical marijuana used in treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder went badly and caused psychosis and hallucinations due to body chemistry. This shows that not everyone reacts well with marijuana. Finally, I will end with my opinion on the case of medical marijuana (one you can probably infer from the sound of this letter), but I will save that to share if you decide to publish my article.

I hope this gives you a taste and feel for what “Weed is What You Need” would be about and that it intrigues you. I hope to share more about this issue and bring light to the loop of legality of medical marijuana because as the title of this article suggests, marijuana can bring lots of benefits to different medical conditions.


Addie Frank

Medical Marijuana Annotated Bibliography

Fife, T. D., H. Moawad, C. Moschonas, K. Shepard, and N. Hammond. “Clinical Perspectives on Medical Marijuana (cannabis) for Neurologic Disorders.” Neurology: Clinical Practice 5.4 (2015): 344-51. Web.

The majority of this article speaks to the lack of controlled studies and inability to effectively measure patient responses to medicinal marijuana, which makes it hard to become legal in most states and to be covered by insurance. Because of the restrictions on the legality of marijuana in most states, controlled studies and ability to show benefits in different neurologic disorders can’t happen. So a cycle occurs with neither side able to move forward. The plant itself is also discussed and how the cannabinoids (and cannabis) affect different receptors in the CNS, which is where relief from pain in different disorders comes from. This article also has a list of states in which medical marijuana is legal versus where recreational marijuana is legal. This shows just how few places medical marijuana is legal.


Lotan, Itay, Therese A. Treves, Yaniv Roditi, and Ruth Djaldetti. “Cannabis (Medical Marijuana) Treatment for Motor and Non–Motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease.” Clinical Neuropharmacology 37.2 (2014): 41-44. Web.

This article discusses a specific case study in which 22 patients with Parkinson’s disease were monitored with different rating scales on both motor and non-motor symptoms after smoking cannabis over a 2 month period. The article concludes saying that significant improvement in areas such as tremors, rigidity, pain tolerance, and quality of sleep. However, because of the placebo effect and patient rating (bias), the potential for this study not being reliable arises. However, in the discussion of this experiment/case study, documented benefits of cannabis for other diseases such as AIDS or those receiving chemotherapy are mentioned so some truth comes back into the reliability of this study on Cannabis treatment of Parkinson Disease.


Maule, W. J. “Medical Uses of Marijuana (Cannabis Sativa): Fact Or Fallacy?” British journal of biomedical science 72.2 (2015): 85-91. ProQuest. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.

This article discusses more in depth about what exactly medical marijuana does and how it is used as a medication for nausea and delayed vomiting and spasms and pain relief. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is the main component of marijuana that causes the high people feel and what gives the relief of pain. This article also discusses side effects of long-term marijuana use and how short-term use can be useful. Some statistics about marijuana use worldwide are named, and examples of case studies done to prove the usefulness of medical marijuana are mentioned (especially in using placebos to compare the effect on pain relief).


Pierre, Joseph M., M.D. “Psychosis Associated with Medical Marijuana: Risk Vs. Benefits of Medicinal Cannabis use.” The American Journal of Psychiatry 167.5 (2010): 598-9. ProQuest. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

This article is in fact a letter to the editor discussing the risk of medicinal marijuana by showcasing a specific case of “Mr. Z”. This man presented with many symptoms and heightened problems from being a war veteran. He prescribed himself with medicinal marijuana to supposedly alleviate pain, but the present conditions led to heightened psychosis that went from PTSD to hearing voices and being paranoid. The use of cannabis to treat his symptoms only made his stress and potential for psychosis heighten and a dependency of sorts to happen with regards to cannabis. So this article shows a negative to the potential use of medical marijuana.


Zeese, Kevin B. “History of Medical Marijuana Policy in US.” International Journal of Drug Policy 10.4 (1999): 319-28. Web.

This article discusses the history of medical marijuana as it is related to laws. The largest reason that medical marijuana is not more widely spread is because of legislation or lack thereof of making it legal. Most of the article discusses how marijuana went from a Schedule I drug to becoming legalized medically in many states across the United States. States across the US are mentioned with specific studies done in order to prove the effectiveness of medical marijuana, and the public desire for medical marijuana grew as publicity on this relatively new topic grew. This article, however very factual, shows some bias coming through in that the author clearly believes that medical marijuana should be legal. Zeese, in fact, was a part of the litigation for medical marijuana.

Idiots or not?

This article talked about the history of autism and how it has actually been around for way longer than the term has even been in use. Back then, people with intellectual disabilities or people who acted differently than the norm were referred to as “idiots”. The term had a different connotation back then than it did now so it wasn’t meant to be super demeaning but a way to describe such people. A doctor realized that there was more to these people so he decided to travel and examine anyone called an “idiot” and measure different things about them. A certain person named Billy was looked at, and the doctor noticed that he had profound musical talents despite his social unawareness and intellectual stuntedness. This was just one example of how autism was around a long time ago (and was beginning to be recognized) and that it is more than just intellectual disability.