Aizaki, H., Sawada, M., & Sato, K. (2011). Consumers’ attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef. The impact of exposure to technological information about animal cloning. Appetite, 57(2), 459-466. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
This study was designed to test consumer’s views on food technologies, specifically on cloning. The practice is not widely accepted by the human population. The researchers designed an online survey to see if informing consumers about the process of cloned cattle (both by ECNT and SCNT) and the low health risk they pose would change their attitude towards it. The survey was issued to Japanese consumers and the results showed they held the same attitude towards cloned cattle before and after learning more about it. The lack of change may have been due to consumers’ lack of food safety knowledge, their strong views on cloning, or their lack of understanding of the material presented to them.
Heyman, Y., Chavatte-Palmer, P., Berthelot, V., Fromentin, G., Hocquette, J., Martignat, L., & Renard, J. (2007). Assessing the quality of products from cloned cattle: An integrative approach. Theriogenology, 67(1), 134-141. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
This study talks about the in depth testing of the maturation process of cloned cattle, the milk composition, and the meat compared to naturally mating animals. The study did find slight but significant differences in the amount of prenatal deaths, in the composition of the meat, and in the composition of milk. In order to then test the safety of the animal products, they conducted a study using Wistar rats. The trial concluded there was no significant different between cloned animal products and the naturally mated animals in the effect of the rats’ health. It was concluded the potential risk for consuming cloned animals was very minimal, however, further research should be conducted before the products enter the food chain.
Laible, G., & Wells, D. N. (2007). Recent advances and future options for New Zealand agriculture derived from animal cloning and transgenics. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(2), 103-124. Retrieved January 21, 2016.5
This article is about the background of cloning and the new problems scientists are facing. These problems include the altering of the frequency of many genes in an unregulated manner and the technology to test if human consumption is safe. The process of cloning at the moment is inefficient and often times causes errors in the animal’s genes. They are looking at ways to improve these issues. There is also a resistance of consumers to buy animal products that have been cloned. Scientists are currently creating a way to test the cloned animals and approve them for commercial consumption.
Rudenko, L., & Matheson, J. C. (2007). The US FDA and animal cloning: Risk and regulatory approach. Theriogenology, 67(1), 198-206. Retrieved January 25, 16.
This article explains how the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) evaluates food for consumption. It discusses the lack of regulation the FDA had on the cloning technology. This lead to the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) to investigate any potential risks of cloned animals. They found cloned animals produce the same hazards as naturally mated animals. Although cloning has not been extremely successful due to the smaller gene pool, the healthy animals that come out of it should be able to be consumed with no risks. The FDA has decided to not add any additional safety regulations for cloned meat based on these findings. They have agreed to stay up to date with new research on cloned animals and take precautions as necessary. For now, they have not approved of cloned meat in the market.
Yang, Xiangzhong, X. Cindy Tian, Chikara Kubota, Ray Page, Jie Xu, Jose Cibelli, and George Seidel. “Risk Assessment of Meat and Milk from Cloned Animals.” Nat Biotechnol Nature Biotechnology 25.1 (2007): 77-83. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
This article compiles a bunch of studies done on cloned cattle and specifically compares two types of cloning methods. The two methods compared are embryonic cell nuclear transfer, (ECNT) cloned cattle and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloned cattle. They found that after testing all parts of the cattle including maturation, blood composition, meat composition, and milk composition that ECNT cattle are safe for human consumption. The blood composition varied in the SCNT cattle, however, all the other differences were only slight. Overall, the article concludes that after evaluation all the research that the differences between cloned cattle and normal cattle are very slight and do not effect human consumption.